Module 4: Cognitive Explanations of Learning
• John Flavell + Lev Vygotsky + Jean Piaget
• Metacognition is the monitoring and control of thought, thinking about cognition, self reflection
• Metacognition is the process of being self-aware of one’s own personal learning strengths and weaknesses; strategy knowledge and use; and a capacity for self-reflection
Strategies to Improve Metacognitive Awareness:
– Discuss with the class the importance of metacognitive knowledge
– Model your own metacognitive processes for students
– Ensure there is time for group discussion and reflection about learning activities
– Make visible the cognitive strategies students are using
Improve regulation of cognition by checking planning, monitoring and evaluating strategy use
Examples of Reflective Questions:
– What is your goal?
What strategies are you using?
– Who can you ask for help?
– How often are you studying?
– Do you think your strategies are working?
– Do you need to make changes to your strategies?
– Did you achieve your goal?
– What strategies worked?
– What will you do differently next time?
Benefits and Limitations of Metacognition;
– Self-awareness
– More efficient use of study time by using strategies
– Taking control of learning
Not always easy to identify learning strategies
– Hard to be honest about strategies
Introspection can lead to doubt
Module 5: The Constructivist Classroom
• John Dewey + Jean Piaget + Jerome Bruner + Benjamin Bloom
Key Principles of Constructivism;
– Learners are active participants in their own learning – the leam by doing
– Learners are self-regulated – they plan, monitor and evaluate (metacognition)
– Social interaction is necessary for learning
– Individuals are encouraged to make sense of information for themselves
Classroom Strategies of Constructivism;
– Discovery learning – problem based learning
– Problem solving
– Open-ended questions
Reflection; Learning journal
– Questioning
– Collaborative learning
– Small-group learning
– Social learning – online networking Peer teaching
– Use of experts e.g. parents or community members
– Use of Bloom’s taxonomy to structure a series of questions that each student can apply based on their capacity
– Cultural experiences – excursions to art galleries, museums, national parks
Benefits and Limitations of Constructivism;
– Active discovery promotes curiosity
– Active rather than passive learning
Interaction with experts
– Encouraged use of available technology
– Requires considerable time
– Students may not have group work skills
– Lack of student motivation
– Students may leam incorrectly
Module 6: Contemporary Teaching Strategies
Collaborative Inquiry and Problem Based Learning:
• John Chaffee + John Dewey + Socrates
• Scaffolds (tools, resources, and processes provided by the teacher)
• Before learning – during learning – after learning
• Based around experiencing and solving real world problems
Characteristics of Collaborative Inquiry and Problem Based Learning:
– Posing questions and investigating these using data/information
– Freedom for groups of students to define their own inquiry or problem solving process
– Development of ideas within a community of learners
– Student-centred activities in order to solve a problem
– Discovery or exploration of ideas
Elements of the Process of Inquiry/Problem Based Learning;
– Asking questions
– Planning
– Investigation
– Analysis of information
– Model creation of the solution/findings
– Conclusion
– Reflection
Scaffold Examples:
– providing some direct instruction at the start of the project – helps orient students to the topic and provides an overview of the importance of the topic
– provide a series of steps that the students have to follow, based on relevant content
– take students on an excursion
– ask the local experts to speak to class and respond to questions
– provide regular opportunities in class to discuss the strategies students are using, and their perspective on how effective these strategies were
Benefits and Limitations of Inquiry/Problem Based Learning:
– Teaches critical thinking skills
– Focuses on strategies to overcome problems
– Improve students attitudes towards learning
– Not all students comfortable with group work
– Relies on introspection and self-report
– Regular feedback can be difficult
Module 7: Personalised Learning and Data Driven Teaching
• David Miliband
• select age-equivalent content that is meaningful and respects students’ individual needs, strengths, language proficiencies and interests
• provide stimulating learning experiences that challenge, extend and develop all students
• use their knowledge of students’ individual needs, strengths and interests to ensure access to the teaching and learning program.
• Emphasises student individuality
• Meaningful connection between student and curriculum
• Data driven teaching uses individual data from student assessment to tailor make future assessments and activities based on current ability level
Benefits and Limitations of Personalised Learning:
Many ways for students to present work
– Students have a choice in how they learn and what materials they choose to leam with
– Encourages autonomy, self awareness, and responsibility
– Some students are indecisive and procrastinate
– Finance restraints
– Without direct guidance curriculum components may not be fulfilled

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *